Monday, June 1, 2009

Bioactive Components of Food


Bioactive Components of Food
Food Component
Examples
If too little
Upper and lower limits
If too much
Links

Dietary Protein
     ~105 types
• allergies
7%-40% of total calories7%-40% of total calories (0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight)
• stomach upsets
• FDA daily reference values, 4-2008

Albumin
• poor recovery from physical stress

• dehydration
• FDA recommended healthy diet

Avidin
• difficulty sleeping

• bad breath/body odor
• Daily Values for Children

Casein
• fatty liver

• gout
• Protein supplements for weight training

EF-hand protein



• calcium loss
• Best proteins for muscle growth

Tropomyosin



• damage to the liver and kidneys.
• Promax Pros and Cons

Whey



• reduced endurance
• Rice Protein Guide

XB15
Plant enzymes






• Spirulina Side Effects

Dietary Carbohydrate
     ~102 types
• nausea
40%-60% of total calories
• fatigue


o Monosaccharides (Fructose, Glucose, Galactose)
• fatigue, dizziness

increased hyperactivity
• Low-carb diets may hamper memory

o Disaccharides (Lactose, Sucrose, Maltose)
• feeling frustration

tooth decay
• Clinical Nutrition Journal article on too much carbs in diet

o Oligosaccharides (Raffinose, Stachyose)
• light-headedness

heart disease
• PloS Genetics article on why too much sugar decreases lifespan

o Polysaccharides (starch, dietary fiber, mucilage)
• tiredness

type 2 diabetes
• Dr. McDougall’s Money-Saving Medical Advice

o Nucleotides
• gout

yeast infections
• Fat No More by Sandra Prior



• bad breath, odor of alcohol

candida overgrowth




• headache

digestive problems




• kidney stones

asthma




• ketosis (muscle wasting), blood acidosis

osteoporosis







kidney disease







liver disease







obesity







depression


Dietary Lipid (Fat)
~103 types, examples of classes found in food:
• Hair falling out
15-35 of total calories


• Coronary Heart Disease
• MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Fat

saturated fatty acids
• Hair loosing luster and sheen

• Diabetes
• Diet Bites

monosaturated fatty acids
• Nails becoming brittle, hard and curly

Cancers
• NY Times article

polyunsaturated fatty acids
• Vital organs lacking cushion

• Gallstones


cholesterol
• Difficulties to maintain body temperature





phospholipids







Water


• Thirst
2 qts-10 liters (2-3 liters), ~volume of excreted fluid
• blurred vision
• Too Much Water Can Kill



• Loss of Appetite

• muscle cramps
• Water intoxication



• Dry Skin

• confusion
• Dehydration



• Skin Flushing

• seizures




• Dark Colored Urine

• coma




• Dry Mouth







• Fatique or Weakness







• Chills







• Head Rushes




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Dietary Minerals
Potassium
• elevated blood pressure
• cardiac arrhythmias,
• muscular weakness
• myalgia
• muscle cramps
• constipation
• flaccid paralysis
• hyporeflexia
• tetany

3,500 mg
• malaise,
• palpitations
• muscle weakness
• cardiac arrhythmia
• sudden death.

• Low Potassium Diet Recipes

Chloride
Sweating, tremor, anxiety, tachycardia, hunger, dizziness, reduced mental acuity, visual abnormalities, convulsions and loss of consciousness
3,400 mg
Kussmaul's breathing, weakness, intense thirst.


Sodium
Increased risk of heart attack, Swelling of the brain
1000-
2300mg
(2,400mg)

lethargy, weakness, irritability, edema, seizures, coma
• Dietary minerals

Calcium
Off spots, rashes, tingling and parasthesia, spasms, hyperactive tendon reflexes, cardiac arrhythmias
1 gram
(1.2g if 50+)

fatigue, depression, confusion, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, pancreatitis or increased urination
• Medical Encyclopedia: Poisoning

Phosphorus
Muscle dysfunction and weakness, irritability, gross confusion, delirium, coma, worsening of infections, rhabdomyolysis, hemolytic anemia.
700 mg-1,000 mg

ectopic calcification, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and renal osteodystrophy


Magnesium
Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, Vitamin K deficiency, depressed immunity, depression, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, increased levels of stress, insomnia, fasciculation, migraine, cancer, ADHD, asthma, Restless Leg Syndrome, and allergies
Women: 310-320 mg
Men: 400-420 mg



Weakness, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, Impaired breathing, Hypotension, Hypocalcemia, Arrhythmia and Asystole
Magnesium - the stress buster

Zinc
hair loss, skin lesions, diarrhea, wasting of body tissues. Damage of eyesight, taste, sense of smell and memory, acne. Leukonychia (white spots on the fingernails), dysmenorrhea
15 mg (30mg)
"zinc chills", Vomiting, Diarrhea, Drowsiness


Iron
fatigue, pallor, irritability, weakness, pica, brittle or grooved nails, painful atrophy of the mucous membrane covering the tongue, the pharynx and the oesophagus, impaired immune function
18 mg
Fatigue, Weakness, Weight loss, Joint pain, Abdominal pain; Arthritis, Symptoms of Gonadal failure, Dyspnea or shortness of breath

iron overload

Manganese
Ataxia, fainting, hearing loss, weak tendons and ligaments; skeletal deformations, delayed wound healing
2mg
2.3 mg (tolerable: 11 mg)

tremors, odd movements, a mask–like face, and body stiffness; hallucinations, confusion, and memory loss.
How much is too much?

Copper
spasticity, severe gait abnormalities including ataxia, and a neuropathy.
900 µg
mild headaches, lightheadedness, convulsions, palsy, and insensibility


Iodine
Fatigue, Thyroid disease, Breast, ovarian, and skin cysts, poor digestion, Dementia, Glaucoma, Parkinson's; Deafness in children of iodine defficient mothers
150 µg
burning in the mouth, throat and stomach and/or abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dirarrhea, weak pulse, and coma


Selenium
extreme fatigue, hyperthyroidism, mental slowing, goitre, cretinism and recurrent miscarriage
55-70 µg
hair loss , tenderness and swelling on the fingertip, garlic breath/body odor


Molybdenum
combined enzyme deficiency, severe neurological abnormalities, dislocated ocular lenses, mental retardation, increased urinary excretion of sulfite, thiosulfate, S-sulfocysteine, taurine, hypoxanthine and xanthine, and reduced serum and urine levels of sulfate and urate
45 µg
Cough, phlegm, shortness of breath, wheeze. Rhinitis, eye irritation., acute anemia


Cobalt
loss of appetite, emaciation, weakness, anemia
5-40 µg
Cough. Laboured breathing. Shortness of breath.Dry skin, Redness, Abdominal pain, Vomiting


Nickel


up to 1 mg
decreased body weight, heart and liver damage, and skin irritation











___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Vitamins
Betaine









Carotene, alpha


lung cancer
in smokers



• Vitamin overdose


Carotene, beta






• Multiple vitamin overdose


Choline


<3.5g>


L-Carnitine Side Effects


Cryptoxanthin, beta









Folate, DFE, Folic acid , Vitamin B9, folacin









Lutein, zeaxanthin









Lycopene


unknown





Niacin


14-16mg
(20 mg tolerable)






Pantothenic acid









Retinol









Riboflavin (B2)


1.1-1.3mg





Thiamin (B1)


Women: 1.1 mg
Men: 1.2 mg (<1.5>






Vitamin A


700-900 mcg






Vitamin B-12









Vitamin B-6









Vitamin Bt (L-carnitine)









Vitamin C, ascorbic acid









Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)
Hemorrhage








Vitamin K (phylloquinone)







___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
AMINO ACIDS
Alanine






• Amino Acid Supplements

Arginine






• Maximuscle Promax

Asparagine








Aspartic acid








Cysteine








Glutamic acid








Glutamine








Glycine








Histidine








Isoleucine








Leucine








Lysine








Methionine








Phenylalanine








Proline








Serine








Threonine








Tryptophan








Tyrosine








Valine







__________________________________________________________________________________________
Probiotics
10 genera, ~103 strains






Webmd on Probiotics

Bacteroides sp.






Wikipedia on Probiotics

Bifidobacterium bifidum








Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (Align_, could help IBS








Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 (available in Yo-Plus yogurt, LiveActive cheese).






Chronic fatigue

Bifidobacterium lactis HN019. good for older people








Lactobacillus sp.







Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285 plus Lactobicillus casei Lbc80r (available as BioK + CL1285 fermented milk, BioK + CL1285 soy milk, and capsules).








Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 (in DanActive products).








Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 (in DanActive products).








Lactobacillus plantarum 299V (NextFoods, Ferring)








Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC55730 (available in BioGaia Gut Health products).








Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) (in Danimals drinkable yogurt and Culturelle capsules).








Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) (in Danimals drinkable yogurt and Culturelle capsules).








S. cerevisiae (S. boulardii) (Florastor powder and Lalflor capsules).







___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Polyphenols
Hydrolyzable tannins (gallic acid esters of glucose and other sugars)






• Herbal Teas
Phenylpropanoids
Lignins








Flavonoids








Condensed tannins







___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Other Bioactive Food and Drink Compounds
Allyl-S compound








Caffeine








Capsaicinoid








Coumarin








Coumestan








Dietary Alcohol








Dietary Ash






Food Ash Charts

Hydroxybenzoic Acid








Indole








Isothiocyanate








Retinoid








Tannin








Terpane








Theobromine








Tocopherol








Tocotrienol







___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mirrored from Aurametrix

Aurametrix works on automatic solutions to monitor and analyze food intake, along with many other aspects of daily living.  Better solutions for a healthier world.

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