Saturday, December 12, 2009

Vinegar and Water Diet

A glass bottle of commercially produced raisin...Image via Wikipedia

Vinegar and Water Diet was made popular in 1820 by Lord Byron - so says the Fad Diet Timeline (Fad Diets Throughout the Years) article by the American Dietetic Association.

Some people found this diet can do miracles, while others had side effects without any positive results and called it a scam.

The primary reason that this diet works could be that you are told to eat moderate portions, watch the nutritional composition of the food you eat, and get exercise. Just doing those alone is often enough to stimulate your body to maintain a healthy weight, if not lose weight.

Yet, there could be properties in the vinegar that will help you lose weight.

One of the premises of the Apple Cider Vinegar Diet is that taking small amounts of apple cider vinegar daily suppresses appetite and assists in weight loss. Apple Cider Vinegar is also said to reduce glucose levels, treat acid reflux disease and cure acne, among other things. There also were ungrounded claims of cider vinegar to be a special source of various B vitamins and amino acids.

There have been clinical studies, on both rats and humans, suggest apple cider vinegar does make one feel fuller. Many people agree about apple cider vinegar’s ability to suppress appetite (at least because of the taste), but more research is needed. Various other claims of benefits are not supported by research but there is some support for apple cider vinegar’s role in lowering glucose and cholesterol levels and increasing HDL (good) cholesterolin people. Apple cider vinegar was shown to reduce serum triglyceride (TG) levels and increased HDL-cholesterol in diabetic animals.

Another interesting fact is that vinegar was shown to reduce counts of not-so-benefitial bacteria. Diluted solutions of various household sanitizers (apple cider vinegar, white vinegar, bleach, and a reconstituted lemon juice product) were tested for their effectiveness in reducing counts of inoculated Escherichia coli and naturally present aerobic, mesophilic bacteria on lettuce. (J Food Prot 2002,Oct,01;65(10):1646-50; (PMID: 12380754)) Of the sanitizers tested, 35% white vinegar (1.9% acetic acid) was the most effective in reducing E. coli levels (with a 5-log10 reduction after 5 min with agitation and after 10 min without agitation) and in reducing aerobic plate counts (with a >2-log10 reduction after 10 min with agitation).

Could apple cider vinegar be replaced with anything else to achieve the same effects?

Most dieters would answer no to this question. They would tell you to "be careful with which vinegar you use. White vinegar is good for many many thing, but don't drink it will remove all of the minerals and nutrients from your boby. Apple cider vinegar is the only one you want to ingest".

I may say this statement is rather too strong, but what about the actual chemical content?

Comparison of various vinegars shows that no chemical in particularly stands out - apple cider vinegar has a higher Manganese content, but that's about it.

Typical white distilled vinegar is at least 4% acidity and not more than 7%. Cider and wine vinegars are typically slightly more acidic with approximately 5-6% acidity.

Of course, there also could be a yeast and bacterial content - at least dead Acetic acid bacteria (these critters derive their energy from the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during respiration. They are Gram-negative, aerobic, and rod-shaped).
Commercially available vinegars, however, are well filtered (no mother of vinegar) and were reported to work in people's diets even if not organic and expensive types.

Usual apple cider vinegar substitutes are:

malt vinegar OR white vinegar (a good choice for pickles) OR wine vinegar (not for pickles)

lemon juice (as a flavoring or for acidulating water) OR lime juice (as a flavoring or for acidulating water) OR brandy (for deglazing pans) OR fortified wine (for deglazing pans and perking up sauces) OR wine (for deglazing pans and perking up sauces) OR ascorbic acid (mixed with water) OR amchoor OR tamarind paste

Since vinegar can be made from anything with sugar, there are probably too many different types to count made in countries throughout the world. Each country may use starting materials native to their area and tailored to the specific tastes of the region.

Typical retail varieties of vinegar include white distilled, cider, wine (white and red), rice, balsamic, malt and sugar cane. Other, more specialized types include banana, pineapple, raspberry, flavored and seasoned (e.g., garlic, tarragon).
Are there Formal Standards for Vinegar?
The following varieties of vinegar are classified by a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Compliance Policy Guide for labeling purposes according to their starting material and method of manufacturing:

•Cider vinegar or Apple vinegar is made from the two-fold fermentation of the juices of apples. Vinegar can be made from other fruits such as peaches and berries with the labels describing starting materials.

•Wine vinegar or Grape vinegar is made from the two-fold fermentation of the juice of grapes.

•Malt vinegar, made by the two-fold fermentation of barley malt or other cereals where starch has been converted to maltose.

•Sugar vinegar, made by the two-fold fermentation of solutions of sugar syrup or molasses.

•Spirit or distilled vinegar, made by the acetic fermentation of dilute distilled alcohol.

•Blended Vinegar made from a mixture of Spirit vinegar and Cider vinegar is considered a combination of the products that should be labeled with the product names in the order of predominance. It is also the product made by the two-fold fermentation of a mixture of alcohol and cider stock.

•Rice or Rice Wine vinegar (although not part of FDA’s Compliance Policy Guide) has increased in popularity over the past several years and is made by the two-fold fermentation of sugars from rice or a concentrate of rice without distillation. Seasoned rice or rice wine vinegars are made from rice with the “seasoning” ingredients noted on the label.

•Balsamic vinegar (also not a part of FDA’s Compliance Policy Guide) continues to grow in market share and “traditional” and “commercial” forms are available. The products are made from the juice of grapes, and some juice is subjected to an alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation and some to concentration or heating. See the “Today’s Vinegar” section of the Web site for more information regarding Traditional and Commercial Balsamic Vinegar.

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